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The types of the insecticides

Insecticides fall into two types; inorganic and organic. Organic molecules always contain carbon and inorganic don't. For example Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) is organic and Ammonia NH3 is inorganic. Clicking on the name of the chemical will take you to a page with a bit of information on that chemical.
The inorganic insecticides in main use are:
Silica (SiO2); this acts as a dessicant and strips off the waxy coating off the cuticle of the insect thus causing suffocation. This is sometimes referred to as diatomaceous earth or kieselguhr and is made up of the frustules of diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), this material also has a tremendous surface area which explains why it is a good absorbent. These are unicellular algae characterised by the silicified cell made by two halves. (Silicified meaning infiltration or replacement of organic tissues or of other minerals such as calcite by silica).
Boric Acid (H3BO3); also known as Boracic Acid and is used for incorporating into baits for ant control.
The organic insecticides are split up into the following main groups:
Organophosphorous compounds (OP); these are compounds made up of an organic molecule to which has been added Phosphorous. There are many compounds on the market which have this basis, clicking on them will give a brief description:
Organochlorine compounds (OC); these are compounds made up of an organic molecule with the addition of chlorine. The downside to these types of insecticide is that they are very persistent. Some studies have shown that when Lindane has been used it is still active after a number of years. As a consequence these compounds are largely banned as they threaten the environment. Having said that, they really were good insecticides..! A few examples are listed below:
Carbamates(C); These are effective against a wide range of pests. Moderately residual and effective at higher temperatures, but broken down if alkalinity is high. There are loads of carbamates, I just cover the one we mostly use..
Pyrethrum is a natural insecticide obtained from the flower heads of tropical chrysanthemum and has excellent knockdown properties at low concentrations. The downside to using natural pyrethrum is that it is very expensive. Another natural insecticide is Rotenone which is obtained from the Derris tree, useful as a contact insecticide.
Pyrethrins/Synthetic Pyrethroids(SP); These fall into two categories; those that are photostable and those that are not photostable and chemically stable. These products are sometimes mixed with another compound such as piperonyl butoxide to give a synergic effect enabling high residuality and good knockdown. I am covering one of the best known, which is Permethrin.
Insect Growth Regulators(IGR); These are hormones which interfere with the insects growth cycle inhibiting full development.
Fumigants; These are volatile gases and only to be used by qualified personnel.
Methyl Bromide (CH3Br)
Aluminium Phosphide
Magnesium Phosphide
Calcium Cyanide
Hydrogen Cyanide